Quality Mountain Days
                                                                 & Advanced workshops

Unit 11 Section 3 : Bearings

Navigation Basics

topographical features

"Topographic Map. A map that presents the horizontal and vertical positions of the features represented; distinguished from a planimetric map by the addition of relief in measurable form."

An A-Z street map is not, therefore, a topographical map; it does not provide information about the shape of the land. This sort of information may be vital to navigation in otherwise featureless terrain.


Contour lines are imaginary lines that join points that are equally high above sea-level (equal elevation or altitude). Occasionally there is a depression that is below sea-level.

Since maps are flat they cannot show the "shape" of the land they depict; contours provide that infomation.

Speed, Distance and Time

Important: Participation Statement

Climbing, hillwalking and mountaineering are activities with a danger of personal injury or death.
Participants in these activities should be aware of and accept these risks and be responsible for their own actions and involvement.

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